This term has came across alot nowadays. we heard in food especially such as formulated milk.
Probiotics are defined as viable microorganisms that give beneficial effects and harmless to he hosts.
Commonly they can be found in human milk, human gastrointestinal tract, fermented fairy products and also ruminant milk. Some of the probiotic microorganisms are derived from different species and phyla. The abundance of probiotic that have been discovered before are from Lactobacillus sp., Bifidobacterium sp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pediococcus which belong to difference phylum.
However, the most commonly use probiotic bacteria are Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium sp. Some evidence suggested that there are over 30 species of bifidobacteria and 100 species of lactobacilli have been documented.
Then, in late 1980s Roy Fuller describing probiotic as a live microbial feed supplement which beneficially affects the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Definition by Fuller is the most frequently cited in other articles, since it emphasizes the requirement of probiotic and introduces the beneficial aspect of the probiotic
How it started :
Probiotic concept emerged from the observation on healthy life of Bulgarian people by Nobel Laureate Elie Metchnikoff. However hundred years before that, Louis Pasteur has invented pasteurization that explains the role of bacteria in fermentation. Nowadays scientists move forwards for expansion of probiotic field since it gives ample of benefits.
Recognition of probiotic has been dates back to 19th century when the French scientist, Louis Pasteur has come out the idea that some microorganism live symbiotically with human. This hypothesis called the germ theory. The germ theory indicate that the existence of microorganism and their effect on fermentation.
Later, Louis Pasteur invented method which has been used to process cow’s milk into a safe form for human consumption. Pasteurization is defined as the rendering of milk free of disease-producing bacteria by heating it around 63°C to 66°C for 30 minutes, or around 73°C to 76°C for 15 seconds. In 1862, he and his colleague, Claude Bernanrd completed the first trial of pasteurization. Now, the germ theory being used as the basis of numerous application especially in fermentation field such as brewing of beer, wine making and antiseptic operations. One of the significantly wide applications of Pasteur’s technique was also applied in probiotic production.